Electric vehicles

Electric vehicles are specially designed energy efficient vehicles powered by a rechargeable battery which uses electricity instead to fuel.

These are designed to reduce environmental pollution caused by emissions from fossil fuel powered vehicles. Their maintenance cost is also far less than other vehicles because they have less parts.

Working of EV[i]

Combustion engine of traditional vehicles is replaced by electric motor in an electric vehicle. This make use of electricity to charge the battery and it must be connected to an equipment called electric vehicle supply equipment.

Advantages and disadvantages of EV[ii]


  • Fuel efficient, no need for petrol or diesel
  • Environment friendly i.e., no pollution due to emissions
  • Minimum maintenance cost


  • Battery recharging takes a longer time approximately 3-12 hours to fully charge
  • A charged battery does not allow long distanced journeys, an electric vehicle with fully charged battery can cover a distance or 100-300 miles depending on the model.
  • Expensive than conventional vehicles
  • Batteries are needed to be replaced after a certain time

Types of electrical vehicles

Electric vehicles are categorized into two groups: fully electric battery powered vehicles and plug-in electric hybrid vehicle.

  1. Battery powered vehicle

These are fully electric vehicles and have 99% less maintenance parts. They make least noise, zero emissions and use a rechargeable battery to run. Batteries can be charged overnight with charging time minimum of 30 minutes to a maximum of 12 hours to fully charge. The charging time is dependent on the battery size and the speed of charging. These are not good for long distance travelling as battery may exhaust before reaching the destination.

  1. Plug-in hybrid vehicles

Hybrid vehicles as their name indicate is a mixture of two. They can use both an electric battery as well as petrol or diesel for fueling. This allows these vehicles to travel long journeys and switch in between the two if you run out of battery or the fuel. Contrary to fully electric vehicles, they cause noise pollution and environmental emissions. The overall cost also increases including the fuel cost or maintenance cost.

Most rated electric vehicles

2021 Tesla Model 3

Travelling range of up to 263 miles rather than previous 250 miles, wireless charging, powered trunk opening and closing, metallic steering wheel, noise reduction owing to innovative windows design, climate control, are some of the key specifications of 2021 Tesla Model 3. It is an efficient vehicle when it comes to its price ranging between $41,990 – $57,990.

Kia Niro EV

It has a battery of 64 kWh with 201 hp electrical motor that can support a journey of 239 miles. Its key features include adjustable and heated rear seats, leathered steering and upholstery, automatic climate control, xenon headlights, eight inches display screen, sound system with 6 speakers, collision warning system, lane keeping and blind spot monitoring. $39,090 – $44,650 is the price range of Kia Niro electric vehicles.

Volkswagen ID.4

It is spacious, reasonable (range: $39,999 – $48,170), covering 240-260 miles with DC fast charging (upto 125 kWh), 83 kWh battery, 201 hp electric motor, wireless mobile phone charging, gesture control 10 inches display screen, automatic climate control, collision mitigation, parking sensors, voice control, keyless entry and adjustable heated rear seats.

Hyundai Kona electric

It has come up with a lot of technological features like daytime LED lights, keyless entry, seven inches touchscreen, wireless charging, leather covered steering wheel and seats, heated rear seats, automatic emergency brakes, lane keeping assistance, battery heating to enhance efficiency in cold environments, leathered upholstery, adjustable power-controlled driving seat, 201 hp motor with 250 miles range. All of these features cost in between $37,395 – $45,600.

Chevrolet Bolt Electric Vehicle

It was one the first electric cars to offer longer range vehicles, now with 259 miles range. It has 200hp motor powered by a 66-kWh battery. Features include are keyless entry, 10 inches display, heated rear seats, parking sensors, blind spot monitoring and DC fast charging cable for its LT model. While its premier model has additional specifications like surround camera system, breathable leather seats, automatic headlights, lane assistance, collision warning, etc.

Nissan LEAF

Ranging between $27,400 – $37,400 provides automatic LED headlights, automatic climate control, 4 USB ports, keyless entry, eight inches display, 4 speaker sound system, adjustable driving seat, automatic emergency brakes, lane assistance, blind spot monitoring, etc.

Most luxurious electric vehicles

Some of the most luxurious electric vehicles:

  • Mercedes-Benz EQC
  • Jaguar I-Pace
  • Ford Mustang Mach-E
  • Tesla Model S
  • Tesla Model 3
  • Tesla Model X
  • Lexus UX 300e
  • Porsche Taycan
  • Polestar 2
  • Audi E-tron Quattro
  • BMW iX3


Although electric vehicles offer a substitute for conventional fuel powered vehicles, less maintenance as well as overall cost of charging, but they are far more expensive than other engine powered vehicles. Charging takes a lot of time and battery can run out of charging during the journey which could be problematic. Moreover, electricity is not free, it also cost some money.

Their range are not even comparable to those of conventional ones. There is not any problem related to charging with regular vehicles, once you set off for a journey, you are not afraid of running out of battery. It is easier to get fuel i.e., petrol or diesel during the journey whenever required. Electric fueling stations are not developed to that extent to assist a problem free journey.

It is going to take a lot of time to make things works with electric vehicles. It is not easier to replace all of the regular vehicles with electric ones suddenly.

Prices of the electric vehicle:

The price depends on the models, their features, specifications, range covered and a lot more. A comparison of some of the electric vehicles along with their cost and range are given in the table below:

Comparison of Electric vehicles

Vehicle Cost Range in miles
 Audi e-tron Sportback $65,900 222
BMW i3 $44,450 153
Chevrolet Bolt EV $36,500 259
Ford Mustang Mach-E $42,895 230
 Hyundai Kona Electric $37,390 258
 Hyundai Ioniq Electric $33,245 170
Jaguar I-PACE $69,850 234
 Kia Niro EV $39,090 239
 MINI Cooper SE $29,900 110
Nissan Leaf $31,670 215
 Polestar 2 $59,900 233
Porsche Taycan 4S $79,900 200
Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus $39,990 263
Tesla Model 3 Performance $56,990 315
 Tesla Model S Long Range $79,900 405
Tesla Model Y Long Range $51,990 326
 Tesla Model Y Performance $60,990 303
 Tesla Model X Long Range $89,990 360
Volkswagen ID.4 $39,995 260


[i] https://afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/how-do-all-electric-cars-work


[ii] https://autowise.com/top-7-disadvantages-of-electric-cars/